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Heilongjiang: Market Profile

Major Economic Indicators

Economic Indicators2016Jan-Oct 2017
(%, y-o-y)
(%, y-o-y)
Gross Domestic Product (RMB bn)1,538.66.11990.236.31
Per Capita GDP (RMB)40,4326.51
Added Value Output
   Primary industry  (RMB bn)267.15.3176.935.11
   Secondary industry (RMB bn)440.1
   Tertiary industry (RMB bn)831.58.51603.538.61
Value-added Industrial Output2 (RMB bn)
Fixed-assets Investment (RMB bn)1,043.35.5807.37.3
Retail Sales (RMB bn)840.310.0632.48.4
Inflation (Consumer Price Index, %)1.51.2
Exports ((US$ mn)5,044-37.24,5179.5
   By foreign-invested enterprises (US$ mn)532-17.31,222183.3
Imports (US$ mn)11,494-11.410,70622.5
   By foreign-invested enterprises ((US$ mn)557-2.691998.3
Utilised Foreign Direct Investment ((US$ mn)5,8186.8

1  In real terms
2  For all state-owned enterprises and other forms with annual sales over RMB20 million
3  Jan-Sep 2017

Sources: Heilongjiang Statistical Yearbook 2017, Heilongjiang Statistical Bureau, China’s Customs Statistics,12.2016, 10.2017


General Background

Heilongjiang – abbreviated as Hei (黑) – is situated in China’s northeast corner just next to the far-east region of Russia, with an adjoining border of over 3,000 km. Heilongjiang has a total area of 454,000 sq km. Total population stood at 37.99 million in 2016. Harbin is the provincial capital and other major cities include Qiqihar, Daqing and Mudanjiang.

The province’s deposits of gold and graphite are among the largest in China. Other significant mineral and metal deposits include silver, copper, lead, aluminum, tungsten, zinc, molybdenum, crude oil, coal, wood, soda, quartz, marble and mica. The province also ranks first in the production of crude oil which is mainly found in Daqing Oilfield, the oldest and one of the largest oilfields of China.

In recent years, plans are underway to improve the infrastructure for border trade as Heilongjiang’s importance is set to be enhanced as Sino-Russian relationship and co-operation strengthen. Heilongjiang is also actively planning to play a role in the “One Belt, One Road” New Silk Road Economic Belt initiative of China.


Owing to its fertile soil and unpolluted black earth fields, Heilongjiang is one of the most important grain production bases in China, with a total farmland area of 11.5 million hectares. Heilongjiang has 4.3 million hectares of grassland, making it an important area for animal husbandry in China. Green food industry has been developing rapidly in Heilongjiang. Major food products are milk, rice and soy bean products.


Composition of GDP (%)


Source: Heilongjiang Statistical Yearbook, 2017


In line with the central government’s policy in revitalising the Northeast old industrial bases, Heilongjiang is restructuring its four pillar industries, namely equipment manufacturing, petrochemical, food processing and energy. The value-added industrial output of the four pillar industries amounted to RMB240.7 billion in 2016, accounting for 80.4% of the total value-added industrial output.

State-owned industrial enterprises still play an important role in the province’s industrial development. In 2016, 11.3% of industrial enterprises in Heilongjiang were state-owned and state-holding, but they accounted for 37.9% of the total gross industrial output value, though the share has dropped from 59.7% in 2009.


Heilongjiang has abundant and unique tourist resources with clear seasonal distinction, such as Yabuli skiing site (亞布力滑雪場), Wudalianchi (五大連池), Jingpohu (鏡泊湖). The province is a renowned tourist attraction, both in summer or winter.

In 2016, the number of domestic tourists increased to 143 million (+11.2%), with tourism receipts of RMB157.3billion (+17.7%). The number of overseas tourists stood at 0.96 million (+14.7%), with the foreign exchange revenue of US$458 million (+15.9%).

Foreign Trade

Because of geographical proximity, Heilongjiang’s trade tie with Russia is strong. Border trade accounted for 16% of the province’s total trade in 2016. Trade with Russia amounted to US$9.2 billion in 2016 (-15.3%), 55.6% of the province’s total trade. The US, Brazil and Saudi Arabia, were other major trading partners in 2016.

Major export goods included garments, clothing accessories, mechanical and electrical products, footwear, yarns, fabrics, refined oil and farm produce.

Major imports included mechanical and electrical products, logs, crude oil, paper pulp and farm produce.

Foreign Investment

Chart: Utilised FDI of Heilongjiang
Chart: Utilised FDI of Heilongjiang

Sectors that received the largest share of utilised direct foreign investments included manufacturing (36.1% of the total value) and the real estate sector (20.1%) in 2016.

In 2016, Hong Kong is Heilongjiang’s largest source of foreign investment. Hong Kong actually invested a total of US$4,304 million, accounting for 74% of the total utilised FDI.  Other major foreign investor in 2016 included the US and Taiwan.

Consumer Market

In 2016, annual per capita disposable income of urban households was RMB25,736 (+6.3%). Major consumer markets are located in Harbin and Daqing. Heilongjiang also acts as a gateway for consumer products to enter the markets of Russia and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.


Composition of Per Capita Expenditure of Urban Household (%)

Household articles5.95.6
Medicine & medical services8.911.1
Transportation & communications7.613.6
Recreation, cultural & education12.011.1

Source: Heilongjiang Statistical Yearbook, 2017


Major department stores and shopping centres in Heilongjiang include Heilongjiang Daqing Department Store, Harbin Qiulin Co. Ltd., Harbin Central Commercial City and Harbin Department Store. Large retailers come from outside include Carrefour from France, Walmart from the US, Metro from Germany and Gome from Beijing, etc.


Economic Indicators of Major Cities (2016)

(RMB bn)
GDP Per Capita
Gross Industrial
(RMB bn)
Retail Sales
(RMB bn)
Harbin (哈爾濱) 610.263,445323.7374.4
Daqing (大慶) 261.094,690284.5109.3
Qiqihar (齊齊哈爾) 132.525,690107.974.9
Suihua (綏化) 131.624,109100.756.9
Mudanjiang (牡丹江) 123.146,997102.756.0

* For all state-owned and other forms of enterprises with annual sales over RMB20 million
Source: Heilongjiang Statistical Yearbook, 2017

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