2 Feb 2017
Inner Mongolia: Market Profile
Major Economic Indicators
|Economic Indicators||2015||Jan-Nov 2016|
|Gross Domestic Product (RMB bn)||1,783.2||7.71||1,269.03||7.11|
|Per Capita GDP (RMB)||71,101||7.41||—||—|
|Added Value Output|
|Primary industry (RMB bn)||161.7||3.01||64.93||2.51|
|Secondary industry (RMB bn)||900.1||8.01||635.63||7.11|
|Tertiary industry (RMB bn)||721.4||8.11||568.53||7.61|
|Value-added Industrial Output2 (RMB bn)||—||8.61||—||7.21|
|Fixed-assets Investment (RMB bn)||1,382.5||14.5||1,501.9||11.9|
|Retail Sales (RMB bn)||610.8||8.0||602.8||9.7|
|Inflation (Consumer Price Index, %)||—||1.1||—||1.2|
|Exports (US$ mn)||6,394||56.2||4,090||-22.2|
|By foreign-invested enterprises (US$ mn)||854||10.0||456||-30.9|
|Imports (US$ mn)||8,159||3.3||6,562||2.0|
|By foreign-invested enterprises (US$ mn)||777||-8.6||454||-19.8|
|Utilised Foreign Direct Investment (US$ mn)||3,366||-15.4||2,390||4.1|
1 In real terms
2 For all state-owned enterprises and other forms with annual sales over RMB20 million
3 Jan-Sep 2016
Sources: Inner Mongolia Statistical Yearbook 2016, Inner Mongolia Statistical Bureau, China’s Customs Statistics 12.2015, 11.2016
Inner Mongolia has a total area of 1.18 million sq kilometres, accounting for 12.3% of the national total and is the third largest province or autonomous region of China. The total population stood at 25.11 million in 2015. The capital city is Hohhot city.
It is one of the five autonomous regions of China. It has 49 ethnic groups and Mongolian is the second largest ethnic group (about 17% of the total population) besides Han.
Inner Mongolia has the largest grassland area in China, accounting for 19% of the nation’s total available grassland. It also has the largest forest area, accounting for 12% of the national total. Therefore, Inner Mongolia is important bases for livestock and forestry industries. The region’s number of sheep and goats accounted for about 18.6% of the national total in 2015.
Inner Mongolia is also rich in mineral deposits, such as rare earth and coal. It is the region which discovered the largest number of new minerals. Among the more than 50 recognised new minerals in the world, Inner Mongolia has ten of them. The region is one of the leading production bases of coal in China. It has the second largest reserves of coal after Shanxi. The region aims to become a major national base for energy, metallurgy industry and green agricultural production.
The primary sector still accounted for 9.1% of Inner Mongolia’s GDP in 2015. Animal husbandry is an important sector accounting for about 42% of the gross output of the agricultural sector. Due to the large number of sheep and goats, Inner Mongolia is the leading production base for sheep wool and cashmere, accounting for 30% and 44% of the national total respectively in 2015. The region also has the largest output of mutton which accounted for 21% of the national total in 2015.
Composition of GDP (%)
Source: Inner Mongolia Statistical Yearbook, 2016
The number of cattle more than doubled to reach about 6.7 million by 2015 from 3 million in 2001. Inner Mongolia is the leading base of cow milk, accounting for 21% of the national total in 2015. Hohhot city, the capital city of Inner Mongolia, is also named as the Dairy Capital of China. Famous national brands in dairy product have emerged, including Mingniu (蒙牛) and Yili (伊利) .
In terms of sown area, corn is the leading grain crop. Other major industrial crops include oil bearing crops such as sunflower seeds and vegetables including tomatoes. The region is also a leading production base of potatoes in China.
The share of industry in Inner Mongolia’s GDP has increased markedly over the years. The region’s industry is highly related to its natural resources and mainly consists of further processing of natural resources and agricultural products.
Inner Mongolia is the leading base for electricity generation for supplying to other provinces. It also has the largest wind power production capacity in China. Other major industry sectors include smelting and pressing of ferrous and non-ferrous metals, food manufacturing and textile.
Major Industry Groups (2015)
|% share of gross industrial output|
|Coal mining and processing||15.7|
|Production and supply of electric power and heating power||10.2|
|Processing of agricultural side-line food||8.7|
|Smelting and pressing of ferrous metal||8.2|
|Raw chemical materials & chemical products||7.8|
|Smelting and pressing of non-ferrous metal||7.7|
|Non-metal mineral products||3.9|
|Petroleum and natural gas extraction||3.7|
|Petroleum processing, coke products||3.3|
|Mining and dressing of non-ferrous metal||3.3|
|Mining and dressing of ferrous metal||3.0|
Source: Inner Mongolia Statistical Yearbook 2016
Inner Mongolia has rich tourism resources including the natural scenery of large pastures or desert adventures such as the Sound Bay. The Mongolian ethnic culture and historical relics are also major attractions.
In 2015, Inner Mongolia received 83.5 million (+12.5%) domestic tourists with the tourism receipts of RMB219.4 billion (+25.7%) and 1.61 million (-3.6%) overseas tourists with the foreign exchange revenue of US$962 million (-4%).
Major export items included base metal and related products, chemicals and related products, and textile materials. In 2015, major export markets included Mongolia, Russia, the US and South Korea.
In 2015, most of Inner Mongolia’s utilised FDI went to the mining sector (38% of the total utilised FDI in 2015). Manufacturing was the second largest sector accounting for 34% of the total FDI in 2015.
Hohhot and Baotou are the two leading consumer centres, accounting for 22.2% and 21% of the region’s total retail sales in 2015. In 2015, the per capita disposable income of urban households in Inner Mongolia was RMB30,594 an increase of 7.9%.
Economic Indicators of Major Cities (2015)
|Per capita GDP|
|Gross Industrial Output*|
* For all state-owned and non-state-owned enterprises with annual sales over RMB20 million
Source: Inner Mongolia Statistical Yearbook, 2016