22 March 2018
Liaoning: Market Profile
Major Economic Indicators
|Gross Domestic Product (RMB bn)||2,224.7||-2.51||2,394.2||4.21|
|Per Capita GDP (RMB)||50,791||-2.31||54,745||4.31|
|Added Value Output|
|Primary industry (RMB bn)||217.3||-4.61||218.2||3.61|
|Secondary industry (RMB bn)||860.7||-7.71||939.8||3.21|
|Tertiary industry (RMB bn)||1,146.7||2.51||1,236.2||5.01|
|Value-added Industrial Output2 (RMB bn)||—||-15.21||—||4.41|
|Fixed-assets Investment (RMB bn)||643.6||-63.5||644.5||0.1|
|Retail Sales (RMB bn)||1,341.4||4.9||1,380.7||2.9|
|Inflation (Consumer Price Index, %)||—||1.6||—||1.4|
|Exports (US$ bn)||43.1||-15.1||44.9||4.3|
|By foreign-invested enterprises (US$ bn)||17.9||-4.3||18.5||3.1|
|Imports (US$ bn)||43.5||-3.9||54.5||25.4|
|By foreign-invested enterprises (US$ bn)||20.8||-7.9||24.0||15.3|
|Utilised Foreign Direct Investment (US$ bn)||3.0||-42.2||5.3||76.6|
1 In real terms
2 For all state-owned enterprises and other forms with annual sales over RMB20 million
Sources: Liaoning Statistical Yearbook 2017, Liaoning Statistical Bureau, China’s Customs Statistics, 12.2016, 12.2017
Liaoning has a total area of 148,000 sq km. It has a coastline of 2,178 km. Total population stood at 43.69 million at the end of 2017. Among the three provinces of Northeast China, Liaoning is the largest in terms of GDP, accounting for 42.4% of the total of Northeast China in 2016.
Liaoning has rich mineral resources with large deposits of coal and iron ore. The Liaohe Oilfield (遼河油田) is one of the major oilfields in China. Liaoning’s reserves of boron, magnesite, diamonds and jade also rank the top in China.
Liaoning has over 100 year’s history of industrial development. It has been a major center for heavy industry and raw materials. In 2016, heavy industry accounted for about 84% of Liaoning’s gross industrial output.
Composition of GDP (%)
Source: Liaoning Statistical Bureau
Machinery and equipment, smelting and pressing of metals, food processing and petrochemical, are Liaoning’s pillar industries. Liaoning is an important production base of equipment and machinery industry of China, of which Shenyang and Dalian are the major industrial centers. Some enterprises such as Shenyang Jinbei Co. Ltd. (瀋陽華晨金杯汽車有限公司), Shenyang SIASUN Robot Co. Ltd. (瀋陽新松機器人自動化股份有限公司), Daxian Group Co. Ltd. (大連大顯集團), Shenyang Machine Tool Co. Ltd. (瀋陽機床股份有限公司), Northeast Electric Transmission and Transformation Equipment Group Corporation (東北輸變電設備集團公司) take significant roles in their own sectors including electric power, automobiles, machine tool, machinery, etc.
Share of Leading Industry Groups (2016)
|% share of gross industrial output#|
|Processing of petroleum, coking and nuclear fuel||14.0|
|Manufacture of automotive||12.5|
|Smelting and pressing of ferrous metals||9.8|
|Processing of food from agricultural products||7.3|
|Chemical raw materials and chemical products||6.5|
|Manufacture or general purpose machinery||5.7|
# For all state-owned enterprises and other forms with annual sales over RMB20 million
Source: Liaoning Statistical Yearbook 2017
The province’s light industries mainly are the processing of farm products, processed food and beverages, and tobacco. Dalian is a major fashion centre in China and The China Dalian International Garment & Textile Fair has been held annually to boost the industry.
State-owned and state-holding enterprises still contributed about 45% of the province’s gross industrial output 2016.
Being the birthplace of Dynasty Jin and Qing, Liaoning has abundant historic sites, such as the National Palace Museum in Shenyang (瀋陽故宮), Xingcheng Ancient City (興城古城), etc. In addition, there are also charming natural landscapes in Liaoning such as Mount Phoenix (鳳凰山), White Sand Bay (白沙灣) and Xingcheng Hot Spring (興城溫泉), etc.
|Number of domestic tourist (million)||503||12.1|
|Income generated (RMB bn)||462||12.1|
|Number of overseas tourist (million)||2.79||1.9|
|Foreign exchange income (US$ bn)||1.78||2.1|
Source: Liaoning Statistical Bureau
Liaoning’s foreign trade is mainly conducted through the port of Dalian. The province maintains very close trade ties with Japan and South Korea, thanks to geographical proximity.
Major export items included primary products such as agricultural and fisheries products, raw materials including metals, minerals and oil. It also exported automobiles, auto-parts and machine tools. Major export markets included Japan, US, South Korea, Singapore and Hong Kong. In 2016, Liaoning exports to Hong Kong stood at US$1.5 billion (-9.4%), 3.5% of the total exports.
Major import items included steel, electronic parts, rubber and tubes. Major import sources in 2016 were Japan, Germany, South Korea and the US.
Dalian and Shenyang were the most popular destinations of FDI in Liaoning, together accounting for 84% of the total in 2016. The manufacturing sector attracted the largest share of FDI (29.5% of the total) in 2016, followed by the transportation and warehousing sector (20.4% of the total).
Hong Kong is the largest source of FDI in Liaoning. In 2016, utilised FDI from Hong Kong amounted to US$1.32 billion, accounting for 44.1% of the total utilised FDI. Besides Hong Kong, Japan, Switzerland and Singapore were major sources of FDI in 2016.
Major consumer centers are located in Shenyang (瀋陽) and Dalian (大連). Per capita disposable income of urban households in Liaoning reached RMB32,876 (+5.6%) 2016.
Composition of Per Capita Expenditure of Urban Household (%)
|Medicine & medical services||3.9||9.3|
|Transportation & communications||4.4||13.8|
|Recreation, cultural & education||8.7||12.1|
Source: Liaoning Statistical Yearbook 1997, 2017
Major department stores and shopping centres in Liaoning include Parkland Shopping (百年城), New-Mart (新瑪特) and Victory Plaza (勝利廣場) in Dalian, Zhongxing-Shenyang Commercial Building (中興瀋陽商業大廈), Hualian Commercial Building (華聯商廈) and Wuzhou Chuntian (五洲春天) in Shenyang, etc.
Shenyang plays an important regional distribution role in northern China. In recent years, a number of wholesale markets such as the Wu’ai Market (五愛市場), Shenyang Furniture City (瀋陽家具城) and Shenyang Shoes City (瀋陽鞋城) have grown rapidly.
Economic Indicators of Major Cities (2016)
|Per Capita GDP|
Source: Liaoning Statistical Yearbook, 2017